Mass Balance Technique
Material Cycles
Water Cycle
Carbon Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
Sulfur Cycle
Oxygen Cycle
Industrial Use of Materials
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Industry as an Ecological System
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Decision Making Techniques of Industrial Ecology
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Oxygen Cycle

Oxygen, like carbon and hydrogen, is a basic element of life. In addition, in the form of O3, ozone, it provides protection of life by filtering out the sun's UV rays as they enter the stratosphere. In addition to constituting about 20% of the atmosphere, oxygen is ubiquitous. It also occurs in combination as oxides in the Earth's crust and mantle, and as water in the oceans.

Early in the evolution of the Earth, oxygen is believed to have been released from water vapor by UV radiation and accumulated in the atmosphere as the hydrogen escaped into the earth's gravity. Later, photosynthesis became a source of oxygen. Oxygen is also released as organic carbon in CHO, and gets buried in sediments. The role of oxygen in life is describe in the unit on Biological Systems.

Figure O1. The Oxygen Cycle

Oxygen is highly reactive. A colorless, odorless gas at ordinary temperatures, it turns to a bluish liquid at -183° C. Burning or combustion is essentially oxidation, or combination with atmospheric oxygen. Figure O1 shows a very broad overview of oxygen cycling in nature. The environment of oxygen in numerous reactions make it hard to present a complete picture.

Oxygen is vital to us in many ways (beside the most obvious--for breathing). Water can dissolve oxygen and it is this dissolved oxygen that supports aquatic life. Oxygen is also needed for the decomposition of organic waste. Wastes from living organisms are "biodegradable" because there are aerobic bacteria that convert organic waste materials into stable inorganic materials. If enough oxygen is not available for these bacteria, for example, because of enormous quantities of wastes in a body of water, they die and anaerobic bacteria that do not need oxygen take over. These bacteria change waste material into H2S and other poisonous and foul-smelling substances. For this reason, the content of biodegradable substances in waste waters is expressed by a special index called "biological oxygen demand" (BOD), representing the amount of oxygen needed by aerobic bacteria to decompose the waste. The result of not meeting the oxygen demand is described in the section on the water cycle (needs anchor to exact spot).




  ©Copyright 2003 Carnegie Mellon University
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 9653194. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.