Evolutionary Health
Co-Evolution of Disease & Living Conditions
Health Effects
What is Risk?
Environmental Risk
Risk Assessment
Risk Abatement
Risk Perception
Risk Management
Uncertainty & Other Features of Risk Assessment
Precautionary Principle
Appendix 1: Contaminants
Appendix 2: Environmnet & Reproductive Health
Internet Links
Other Resources
Health & Risk System PDF
Printer-Friendly Web Version
Risk Abatement


Risk abatement means minimizing the risk or minimizing the impact of that risk. There are four categories of risk management:

  1. Modify exposure: different water supply, treat supply water to remove contaminant, increase dilution, have residents purchase bottled water
  2. Modify effects: wait until someone develops a health problem and treat with medication, develop antidote and administer to population
  3. Compensate effects: health and life insurance premiums, law suits and legal settlements
  4. Change environment: treat groundwater




  ©Copyright 2003 Carnegie Mellon University
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 9653194. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.